Peer Review

Last modified by Moritz Baumgarten on 11.01.2024

A peer review allows an anonymous review of submitted tasks by peer participants. From these participant reviews, an overall assessment of each submitted task may be generated.

Depending on the configuration, the peer review may include the following steps:

  • Step 1: Review of other task solutions
  • Step 2: Provision of feedback on existing reviews of your own task solutions
  • Step 3: Display of the overall assessment obtained

Find out more below about the

 

Usage: Learners' View

If the course author has enabled an assessment for a task course element in the form of a peer review procedure, the section Information for the procedure of the peer review will appear in the task element.

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Open this section to find out more about the individual peer review steps and what other settings have been configured. 

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The review process usually begins after submitting your own solution. Therefore, start by uploading or creating your own response to a question in the Submit solution area.

If an anonymous review is desired, please make sure that the file titles and properties as well as the file content do not allow any direct conclusions about the creator.

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1. Review of other task solutions

If the review area is accessible, a corresponding request will appear, and you will be able to see the Submit reviews for other participants area. To start the review process, click on Start review.

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Start the review process ...

Clicking on the Start review button will open the review form. Fill in the form to review the task solution of another user according to the review specifications of your supervisor. The form contains the following information:

1

An indication of how many reviews you need to submit.

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2

The just opened review.

3

The file you should review. Access the file by clicking on the file name.

4

Fill in the fields configured by the course author and award points if required.

5

Save your review and carry out further reviews if necessary (Submit and next button). Once all currently available reviews have been completed, close the dialogue (Submit and close button). Alternatively, you can pause the review editing process with Suspend.

Please note!

Users will not be able to see the name of the creator, solution, or reviewer. These will remain completely anonymous and will not be visible to users.

Attention: The platform cannot affect properties or content in files or form fields. For example, if usernames are stored or hinted at in the file title, file properties, file content or form fields, they will be displayed accordingly.

The course creator may allow the assignment of additional reviews. In this case, more than one solution will be available to you for review.

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Once a review has been submitted, it can no longer be edited (at this point). However, being the review creator, you can view your submitted reviews at any time by clicking on the Show review button.

The creator of the reviewed solution can access the review from the optional feedback session or the assessment area. A course owner has access to all assessment data in the assessment tool.

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The next steps in the review process can be obtained from the information section.

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2. Provision of feedback on existing reviews of your own task solutions

The course creator can allow you to comment on reviews that you have received for your own task solutions. In this case, you will be able to see the Submit feedback for received reviews area. To run this function, click on the Submit feedback button.

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Start feedback process ...

The feedback form opens. Fill in the form to assess the review received according to the specifications of your supervisor. The form contains the following information:

1

An indication of how much feedback you need to give.

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2

The just opened feedback.

3

The review you received and on which you should leave a comment now.

4

If you think that the review you received might be inappropriate, you can use the Report inappropriate review option. Clicking on the button will open another window where you can describe the points of criticism aimed at the review, depending on the course author's configuration. After the supervisor has been informed, they will check the review and either refuse or accept it.

5

Fill in the text fields configured by the course author with your feedback and award points for the received review if required.

6

Save your feedback and give more feedback if necessary (Submit and continue button). Once all currently available feedback requests have been completed, close the dialogue (Finish button).

If the course author has not enabled a feedback round, you will see any reviews you might have received only with the activation of the overall results.

View feedback for created reviews

The feedback you have received on your submitted reviews can be found in the review section (submit reviews for other participants) by clicking on the Show review button. You will see an overview of all the reviews you have given there. If the entry Show feedback for this review is available for a review, you can view the feedback you have received by clicking on this entry.

3. Display of the overall assessment obtained

The course creator has a great deal of freedom in calculating and displaying the overall assessment. You can check the time frames and the selected configuration at any time in the Information on the peer review process section.

If the assessment is already available, it will be displayed in the upper section of the page. With the Show evaluation button, you can open a detailed overview of the assessment.

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View assessment ...

Clicking on the Show evaluation button will open a dialogue box where the assessment for all received reviews and any given feedback is displayed in a tabular overview.

Below the table is the Show reviews button. Click this button to open the detailed view.

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The detailed view shows all received reviews and offers the possibility to report inappropriate reviews (even if the course author has not enabled a feedback round).

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The following entries are possible in the Status column:

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This review was written by a course owner. Expert reviews cannot be reported as inappropriate.

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The review process is actively accompanied by a course owner. They moderate the final scoring and have not yet checked on this review or completed the overall assessment.

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The review process is actively accompanied by a course owner. They moderate the final scoring and have confirmed this review as part of the assessment. Therefore, it will also be considered in the overall assessment.

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The review process is actively accompanied by a course owner. They moderate the final scoring and have refused this review as part of the assessment. Therefore, it will not be included in the overall assessment.

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You have reported this review as inappropriate. However, no course owner has taken action yet.

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You have reported this review as inappropriate. A course owner has accepted your appeal. Therefore, this review will not be included in the overall assessment.

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You have reported this review as inappropriate. A course owner has dismissed your appeal. Therefore, this review will be considered in the overall assessment.

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Configuration: Authors' View

Configuration of the peer review in the course editor

In the course element task, authors can enable the assessment by peer review. To do this, switch to the Assessment tab and select the checkbox Activate peer review.

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This will open additional configuration sections including the review steps:

  • Step 1: Review
  • Step 2 : Feedback (optional)
  • Step 3: Result display

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After enabling the peer review function for your task, you can customise the settings to suit your needs.

Configuration of step 1: Review

In the first section, you can define basic conditions for the review assignment.

Configuration in the review section ...

1

Time frame for review: Set a time frame for users to submit reviews. Within this time frame, submitted reviews can still be changed by the creator.

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2

Set a required number of reviews every user has to submit. Optionally, you can also allow additional reviews. If you select this checkbox, each user can voluntarily create more reviews than the required minimum number.

Number of reviews falls short of the set minimum number

We recommend a minimum of three reviews. If you fall below this number, please refer to the help section on the Impact of falling below the minimum number.

Regardless of the reviews by the participants, authorised users (e. g. course authors) can write their own reviews on participant solutions in the assessment tool. These will be marked as expert reviews. For more information, see the section Create expert review.

3

Configure the template review form:

  • Optionally, you can enter review hints in the text field.
  • Select the desired scoring. You can choose from the options Overall score and Score per text field.
  • Enter the maximum score that reviewers may award.
  • Optionally, add more free text fields.
  • Select the option Documents – Reviewers may upload files if the participants should be able to add files to the review.

4

Save your entries.

Note

To ensure an even distribution of reviews, we recommend specifying specific time frames for the submission of the task, the review phase and the feedback phase. The restriction of the period for submitting the tasks can be set in the Access tab of the task course element (access>drop box>depending on date). This prevents the submission of tasks when the review phase has already begun.

Configuration of step 2: Feedback (optional)

Optionally, you can also allow your users to provide feedback on received reviews. Select the checkbox The participant can give feedback on received reviews to configure the feedback process.

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Configuration in the feedback section ...

Activating this option will open further configuration options.

1

Time frame: Set a time frame for users to give feedback on reviews of their solution. Within this time frame, submitted feedback can still be changed by the creator.

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2

Configure the template feedback form:

  • Optionally, you can enter feedback hints in the text field.
  • Select the desired scoring. You can choose from the options Overall score and Score per text field. The scoring within feedback serves the qualitative assessment of reviews.
  • Optionally, add more free text fields.

3

Save your entries.

Configuration of step 3: Result display

Here you can define the settings for displaying the overall results to the participants.

Configuration in the result view section ...

1

Set a time frame for users to view the overall results. If you leave both fields empty, the user will not see their results before the conditions are met.

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2

Define the conditions for displaying the results. All defined conditions must always be met for the results to be displayed to the users. (The conditions are linked by  AND.)

Choose between:

  • Only show results once the task
    • has the minimum number of reviews present (i. e. if the user has received the defined minimum number of reviews for their solution)
    • has its performance results approved by the supervisor (i. e. a peer review with active moderation by the supervisor)
  • Only show results once the participant
    • has completed the minimum number of reviews
    • has given feedback for all received reviews
Excursion into the review with moderation ...

The peer review function can be performed with and without active support by the supervisor.

For a peer review with moderation, select the checkbox Only show results once the task has its performance results approved by the supervisor. This means that all reviews and feedback must be individually reviewed and approved or refused by the supervisor. There is no automated result analysis, and the results will be available to users only after approval by the supervisor. For more information, see the section Peer review with moderation.

In any case, participants always have the option to report reviews as inappropriate to the supervisor, who will then be informed to check on these reviews separately. For more information, see the section Edit inappropriate review.

Disabled feedback option

In the assessment tool, authorised users (e. g. course owners) can view all proposed solutions and related reviews as well as feedback at any time.

In contrast, course users can – with a disabled feedback option – see the reviews they received for their solution only in the specified time frame for the overall result display. (This also goes for reporting an inappropriate review.)

 

Overall results to the review process

By using the assessment tool, authors may always access an overview of which user has (been assigned which task), delivered a solution, submitted a review or provided feedback.

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In this table, you can also view the reviews (and their statuses) given by the displayed users, or switch to the assessment view as per user.

However, the assignment of usernames to solutions, reviews or feedback is only visible to authors in the assessment tool, but not to the participants in the course view, or in the dialogues for providing reviews or feedback.

Open overview in the assessment tool

To open the status of the review process in the assessment tool, proceed as follows:

Open overview in the assessment tool ...

Go to the assessment tool of the desired course.

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In the left menu, click on the entry As per course structure.

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Select the desired task course element and, if necessary, a course group.

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The displayed table includes information on the reviews carried out by other participants. In addition to the names of the users who created the review, the total score and indications on the review status can be inferred. Using the links, you can display all review content together with the corresponding feedback, if any.

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The opened table contains information about the status of the review process of all users in the selected group.

Information in the detailed view ...

1

Name of the user with a link to the detailed assessment

Click on a displayed username. This will open the course element’s detailed assessment view for the selected user.

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2

Given reviews

The link on the entry opens a dialogue with the reviews submitted by the user.

3

Icon_Warnung.pngReported reviews

The iconIcon_Warnung.pngindicates that at least one review of this user has been reported as inappropriate. Details will be displayed when clicking on the link.

4

Icon_Reviewanzahl reicht nicht aus_de.pngInsufficient number of reviews

The number of reviews received so far for this user is below the configured minimum number of reviews. If the period for the submission of reviews has already expired and the minimum number has not been reached, you should check the assessment of the affected user, write an expert review if necessary and adjust the assessment form.

5

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If not all required columns are displayed, you can change the column configuration by clicking on this icon.

If you instead open the detailed assessment view of a user, you will receive information about the review process of that user's solution.

Information in the detailed view ...

1

Selected course element

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2

Selected user

3

Task and solution of the user

4

Reviews received and status of the reviews

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5

Possibility to give an expert review

6

Assessment form with overall score

7

Show log file

Edit inappropriate review

A user has reported a review that they considered to be inappropriate. Now you have to check and accept or refuse this reported review. Depending on your choice, the review will then be included in the overall result or discarded.

How to deal with reported reviews ...

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If the user has reported a review as inappropriate, the entry “Reported” will appear in the Review status column. Now open the detailed view of the corresponding review. In the dialogue that opens, you can make a decision about the review. Choose between Icon_Review ignorieren_en.png| and Icon_Review akzeptieren_en.png

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By clicking on the Ignore review button, you agree to the user's objection, and the review that has been reported as inappropriate will not be included in the calculation of the overall score. The review status then changes from "Reported" to Reported (will be ignored). Discarding a review may lead to the number of the user’s reviews falling below the predetermined minimum number. Therefore, please check the entire assessment and adjust it if necessary, using the assessment form or by performing an expert review.

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By clicking on the Accept review button, you dismiss the user's objection, and the reported review will still be considered in the calculation of the overall score. The review status then changes from “Reported” to Reported (will be accepted).

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An expert review has been performed and will be considered in the overall assessment.

Peer review with moderation

If you wish to accompany the review process as a course supervisor and check on the assessments before they are released to the users, you can do so by enabling the option Only show results once the task has its performance results approved by the supervisor. Configure this option in the course editor in the result view section.

If the moderation function is enabled, this means that you will need to look into each review individually and accept or refuse it. Only when you are finished, the assessment can be adopted.

Moderate assessment process ...

Review status

Explanation

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If a moderated peer review has not yet been checked, the entry Inspection pending will appear in the Review status column. Open the detailed view of the review by clicking on the entry “Display review” and pass your judgement by clicking on the Icon_Review akzeptieren_en.png or Icon_Review ablehnen_en.png button.

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Using the “Accept review" button, you will approve of the review, and it will be included in the overall assessment. The review status then changes from “Inspection pending” to Accepted.

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Using the “Refuse review” button, you will dismiss the review, and it will not be included in the calculation of the overall assessment. The review status then changes from “Inspection pending” to Refused.

Discarding a review may lead to the number of received reviews falling below the predetermined minimum number. Therefore, please check the entire assessment and adjust it if necessary, using the assessment form or by performing an expert review.

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The Apply review button does not become active until all existing reviews have been viewed and accepted or refused. Clicking on the button stores and transmits the average total score of all individual reviews to the total score field of the assessment form. Depending on the configuration, this will lead to passing the course element.

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Create expert review

Course supervisors may create a review for a participant’s solution in the assessment tool at any time. Depending on the configuration, this may even be necessary if a participant has received too few reviews for an assessment, other participants have not given enough reviews, or there have been inappropriate reviews.

Give expert review ...

Switch to the detailed view of a user's assessment in the assessment tool.

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In the Peer reviews received section, you will find the Give expert review button right underneath the table.

Clicking on the button will open the review form, where you can now give a review for the participant. For the expert review, you will be provided with the same form as the participants for the regular review.

Submit the review with Save and close. Your review will then receive the status or addition expert review in the summary table and all user views.

Impact of falling below the minimum number

The educational goal of the assessment form “peer review” is to enable a peer assessment. Therefore, in drafting this form of assessment, care has been taken to ensure a great many basic scenarios. In particular, the anonymity and randomness of the allocation of participants’ solutions for assessment have been determined as a target criterion.

If you have configured a low required number of reviews and disabled additional reviews in the basic settings, you should consider the following to optimise the assessment procedure:

Important information for an optimal assessment procedure ...
  • Configure fixed, non-overlapping date restrictions: The submission of solutions should always be limited in time to make sure it takes place prior to the review phase (access>drop box>restricted by date until). Therefore, the number of solution files available at the start of the review phase will be fixed and will not change during the review phase.
  • With the start of the review phase, all available reviews will be randomly distributed among all users clicking on the “Start review” button. This means that the assignment of a review only takes place when the user selects the button and is not previously determined. In other scenarios, this guarantees a very open peer review process, which also optimally integrates subsequently submitted solutions.
  • Reducing the minimum number to 1 will result in each user receiving a review of their solution after all of the reviews have been completed.
  • Icon_Warnung.pngOnly the last reviewer might not receive a peer review of their solution; in return, at most, one other user will receive two reviews. However, even with this configuration, it is almost impossible for more than one user to receive more than two reviews and becomes even less likely with an increasing number of users.
  •  
  • The [expand] macro is a standalone macro and it cannot be used inline. Click on this message for details.
    If the exception described above occurs, you need to perform an expert review for this user. To further minimize the chances for such a case, you may allow the assignment of additional reviews.